Services - Industrial Hygiene


Indoor Air Quality

Indoor air quality (IAQ) problems fall into three categories: comfort, chronic, and acute. Under OSHA, employers have the responsibility to provide their employees with a workplace free of recognized hazards. Good IAQ promotes good occupant health, comfort, and employee productivity.
 Problems with IAQ are also known as “Sick Building Syndrome” or “Building related Illness.” IAQ investigations will vary from building to building and are subject to individual susceptibilities, but may include the ventilation (HVAC) system, biological contamination, airborne particulates, or chemicals. IAQ is not an exact science; rather, an approach by experienced professionals who are trained to solve such problems.
A major concern to employers can be excessive employee exposure to chemical stresses such as dusts, fumes, mists, vapors, and toxic gases in the workplace. Health effects resulting from excessive exposure to these contaminants can include coughing, sneezing, headache, nausea, shortness of breath, and burning eyes.
Bonus Environmental, LLC can conduct an IAQ investigation to determine the cause of health-related complaints. Our IAQ services include complaint investigations, air monitoring for bacteria, mold, and other allergens; as well as for volatile organic compounds (VOC’s), and examination of HVAC systems. We can monitor and document concentrations of airborne contaminants, and provide recommendations for appropriate response actions.
Periodic monitoring may be necessary to show that changes in the workplace have not increased employee exposures. Air samples are sent to an independent laboratory accredited by the AIHA to determine contaminant concentrations. We review and interpret the analytical results, calculate the exposures and compare them to applicable PEL’s to determine the appropriate plan of action.


Biological contamination is recognized as a serious health concern, and includes molds, mildew, fungi, bacteria, yeasts, pollen, dust, animal dander, and rodent or bird droppings. Fungi and bacteria are microorganisms that are found in virtually every environment. They become a contamination source in elevated concentrations and can potentially be hazardous to human health.
These microorganisms exist and thrive in conditions resulting from a catastrophic event, a leaky roof or foundation, or in areas isolated from sun and air currents. Microorganisms such as these can exacerbate pre-existing conditions such as allergies, asthma, and hyper-sensitivities. Very little regulatory guidance is currently available regarding fungi and bacteria. As a result, you, the client, relies on the experience and expertise of an industrial hygiene professional in assessing problems related to mold or bacteria. Each member of Bonus Environmental, LLC is a “Certified Microbial Investigator” as accredited through the Indoor Air Quality Association (IAQA). When a water incursion has occurred or employees express health complaints such as burning eyes, runny noses, headaches, fatigue and nausea, a call to Bonus Environmental, LLC can help you determine the source and extent of the problem, and develop a plan to rectify the situation.
The investigational process begins with a thorough walkthrough, testing the building materials for moisture levels and observing for signs of visible fungal growth. If possible, we review the history of the building for past water incursion caused by leaking or broken pipes, flooding, roof leaks, or excessively high humidity. We also interview occupants and maintenance personnel, search the inside of wall cavities and other hard-to-reach areas, and examine the HVAC system.
When mold is identified, we’ll determine the fungal type, and the best remediation method. Bonus Environmental, LLC will prepare a remediation protocol that establishes the precise steps to be taken to ensure a safe removal of moldy and/or water-damaged materials. Upon the completion of mold remediation, Bonus Environmental, LLC will return to ensure that all affected materials have been removed. Viable and/or non-viable bioaerosol samples will be collected to ensure that airborne mold levels are acceptable, to allow the affected area to be reoccupied.


Millions of Americans have noise-induced hearing loss, with nearly all of these caused by exposure to excessive noise in the workplace. Noise pollution can come from a number of sources, including manufacturing processes, construction equipment and activities, power tools, and mechanical equipment.
OSHA’s noise standard requires employers to develop and maintain an effective hearing conservation program whenever noise exposures meet or exceed an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) of 85 decibels. Many areas of industrial manufacturing are in a state of constant fluctuation, where new processes are being added, removed, or modified. As a result, the need for noise surveys and determining the need for sound reduction protection is of the utmost importance. This includes monitoring potentially affected employees, and establishing engineering controls or point-source reduction on equipment.
Bonus Environmental, LLC can monitor potentially affected employees using noise dosimeters. The results are analyzed to determine the proper level of hearing protection that may be warranted.


Bonus Environmental, LLC can perform an inspection of your facility to determine the presence of lead and, if identified, provide recommendations for safe management. Exposure to lead can come from lead-based paint, drinking water, food, soil, and occupational exposures. We may conduct paint chip sampling, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) sampling, surface wipe sampling, water sampling, or soil sampling.
The EPA and OSHA regulate lead-related work activities. As an employer, your company is responsible for determining the airborne lead levels that your employees are exposed to in the workplace. OSHA has established an Action Level and a Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for lead. When airborne levels of lead meet or exceed these levels, OSHA requires certain precautions, including employee training, protective clothing, respirators, medical surveillance, and other protective measures.
A Bonus Environmental, LLC industrial hygienist will monitor the airborne concentrations of lead to determine personal and work area exposure levels. Based upon the employees’ exposure to airborne lead, Bonus Environmental, LLC will assist you in determining what level(s) of training and personal protective equipment (PPE) your employees may need.

Hexavalent Chromium

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) have amended the existing standard which limits occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium. OSHA has determined, based upon the best evidence currently available, that at the current permissible exposure limit (PEL) for hexavalent chromium, workers face a significant risk to material impairment of their health. The evidence in the record for this rulemaking indicates that workers exposed to hexavalent chromium are at an increased risk of developing lung cancer. The record also indicates that occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium may result in asthma and damage to the nasal epithelia and skin. The final rule establishes an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) exposure limit of 5 micrograms of hexavalent chromium per cubic meter of air (5 µg/m³). This is a considerable reduction from the previous PEL of 100 µg/m³ as CrO3, which is equivalent to a limit of 52 µg/m³ as hexavalent chromium. This final rule became effective on May 30, 2006. 29 CFR 1910.1026, “Occupational Exposure to Hexavalent Chromium; Final Rule covers the specific provisions for occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium in general industry
When exposure is at or above the action level, the employer shall perform periodic monitoring at least every six months. If monitoring reveals employee exposures to be above the PEL, the employer shall perform periodic monitoring at least every three months. If periodic monitoring indicates that employee exposures are below the action level, and the result is confirmed by the result of additional exposure monitoring taken at least seven days later, the employer may discontinue the exposure monitoring for those employees whose exposures are represented by such monitoring.
The employer shall perform additional monitoring when there has been any change in the production process, raw materials, equipment, personnel, work practices, or control methods that may result in new or additional exposures to hexavalent chromium, or when the employer has any reason to believe that new or additional exposures have occurred.
A Bonus Environmental, LLC industrial hygienist will monitor the airborne concentrations of hexavalent chromium to determine personal exposure levels. Based upon the employees’ exposure to hexavalent chromium, Bonus Environmental, LLC will assist you in determining what level(s) of training and personal protective equipment (PPE) your employees may need.
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